Pengertian dan Tingkatan Mengenai Hadist Shahih


1.1  Hadist Shahih
A.      Apa itu Sanad  dan Matan?
      Kata sanad menurut bahasa "Sandaran", atau sesuatu yang kita jadikan sandaran. Dikatakan demikian, karena hadis bersandar kepadanya. Menurut istilah, sanad adalah berita tentang jalan matan. Yang berkaitan dengan istilah sanad, terdapat kata-kata seperti al-isnad, al-musnid, dan al-musnad. Kata al-isnad berarti menyandarkan, mengasalkan (mengembalikan ke asal), dan mengangkat. Yang dimaksud disisni, ialah menyandarkan hadis kepada orang yang mengatakannya (raf'u hadits ilaqa'ilih atau 'azwu hadits ila qa'ilih). Menurut Al-Tahiby, sebenarnya kata al-isnad dan al-sanad digunakan oleh para ahli hadits dengan pengertian yang sama.
      Sedangkan kata matan atau "al-matn" menurut bahasa berarti mairtafa'a min al-ardhi (tanah yang meninggi). Sedang menurut istilah adalah suatu kalimat tempat berakhirnya sanad.ada juga redaksi yang lebih simple lagi, yang menyebutkan bahwa matan adalah uung sanad (gayah as-sanad). Dari semua pengertian diatas, menunjukkan bahwa yang dimaksud dengan matan, ialah materi atau lafaz hadits itu sendiri.[1]


B.      Pengertian Hadist Shahih
      Kata shahih menurut bahasa diartikan orang sehat antonim dari kata as-saqim yaitu orang yang sakit jadi yang dimaksudkan hadis shahih adalah hadis yang sehat dan benar tidak terdapat penyakit dan cacat.sedangkan menurut istilah Hadis shahih adalah hadis yang muttashil (bersambung) sanadnya, Adil perawinya, Kuat Hafalannya (dhabit), selamat dari syadz, dan selamat dari penyakit yang tersembunyi atau cacat (‘illat).

Ibn al-Shalah mendefinisikan Hadist Shahih yaitu Hadis Musnad yang bersambung sanad-nya dengan periwayatan perawi yang adil dan dhabith, (yang diterimanya) dari perawi (yang lain) yang adil dan dhabith hingga ke akhir (sanad)-nya, serta Hadist tersebut tidak syadz dan tidak ber-‘illat.[2]

Dari kedua definisi diatas dapat disimpulkan, bahwa suatu hadist dapat dinyatakan Shahih apabila telah memenuhi kriteria tertentu. Kriteria yang telah dirumuskan oleh para ulama tentang Hadist Shahih adalah sebagai berikut:
1.      Sanad hadist tersebut harus bersambung. Maksudnya adalah bahwa setiap perawi menerima Hadist secara langsung dari perawi yang berada diatasnya, dari awal sanad sampai ke akhir sanad, dan seterusnya sampai kepada nabi Muhammad SAW sebagai sumber Hadist tersebut. Hadist-hadist yang tidak bersambung sanadnya tidak dapat disebut Shahih, yaitu seperti hadist Munqathi’, Mu’allaq, dan lainnya yang sanad-nya tidak bersambung.[3]
2.      Perawinya adalah adil. Setiap perawi Hadist tersebut harus bersifat adil, yaitu memenuhi kriteria berikut: Muslim, Baligh, Berakal, taat beragama, tidak melakukan perbuatan fasik, dan tidak rusak muru’ah-nya.[4]
3.      Perawinya adalah Dhabith, artinya perawi Hadist tersebut memiliki ketelitian dalam menerima Hadist, memahami apa yang ia dengar, serta mampu mengingat dan menghafalnya sejak ia menerima Hadist tersebut sampai pada masaketika ia meriwayatkannya. Atau, ia mampu memelihara catatannya dari kekeliruan, atau dari terjadinya pertukaran, pengurangan, dan sebagainya, yang dapat mengubah Hadist tersebut. Ke-dhabith-an seorang perawi dapat dibagi menjadi dua, yaitu: Dhabith Shadran (Kekuatan ingatan atau Hafalannya) dan Dhabith Kitaban (Kerapiandan ketelitian tulisan atau catatannya).
4.      Bahwa Hadist yang diriwayatkan tersebut tidak Syadz. Artinya, Hadist tersebut tidak menyalahi riwayat perawi yang lebih Tsiqat daripadanya.
5.      Bahwa Hadist yang diriwayatkan tersebut selamat dari ‘illat yang merusak.Yang dimaksud dengan ‘illat dalam suatu hadist, adalah sesuatu yang sifatnya samar-samar atau tersembunyi yang dapat melemahkan Hadist tersebut. Sepintas terlihat hadist tersebut shahih, namun apabila diteliti lebih lanjut akan terlihat cacat yang merusak hadist tersebut. Umpamanya, Hadist Mursal (yang terputus sanadnya) dinyatakan sebagai Hadist Maushul (Bersambung sanad-nya), atau Hadist Mauquf dinyatakan sebagai Hadist Marfu’ dan lain sebagainya.[5]
Kelima persyaratan diatas merupakan tolak ukur untuk menentukan suatu Hadist itu sebagai Hadist Shahih. Apabila kelima syarat tersebut di penuhi secara sempurna, maka Hadist tersebut dinamai Hadist Shahih Lidzatihi.

C.     Tingkatan Hadist Shahih
      Di dalam istilah para Ulama Hadist, berkaitan dengan kualitas para perawi atau sanad suatu hadist, dikenal apa yang disebut dengan Ashahh al-Asanid, yaitu jalur sanad yang dianggap para perawinya paling Shahih berdasarkan kesempurnaan pemenuhan syarat-syarat ke-shahihan suatu hadist. Akan tetapi para Ulama Hadist mempunyai penilaian masing-masing terhadap sanad yang mereka anggap sebagai Ashahh al-Asanid.
      Oleh karenanya, terdapat lima jalur yang dianggap sebagai Ashahh al-Asanid, yaitu:
1.      Ashahh al-Asanid menurut versi Ishaq ibn Rahawaih dan Ahmad adalah: Al-Zuhri dari Salim ayahnya (‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar ibn al-Khaththab).
2.      Ashahh al-Asanid menurut versi Ibn al-Madini danAl-Fallas adalah: Ibn Sirin dari ‘Ubaidah dari Ali ibn Abi Thalib.
3.      Ashahh al-Asanid menurut versi IbnMa’in adalah: Al-A’masy dari Ibrahim dari ‘Alqamah dari ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud.
4.      Ashahh al-Asanid menurut versi Abu Bakar ibn Abi Syaibah adalah: Al-Zuhri dari Ali ibn al-Husain dari ayahnya dari Ali ibn Abi Thalib.
5.      Ashahh al-Asanid menurut versi Bukhari adalah: Malik dari Nafi’dari Ibn ‘Umar.[6]
      Sebagian Ulama Hadist membagi tingkatan Hadist Shahih, berdasarkan kepada kriteria yang dipedomani oleh para Mukharrij (Perawinya terakhir yang membukukan) Hadist Shahih tersebutkepada tujuh tingkatan, yaitu sebagai berikut:
1.      Hadist yang disepakati oleh Bukhari dan Muslim.
2.      Hadist yang diriwayatkan oleh Bukhari saja.
3.      Hadist yang diriwayatkan oleh Muslim saja.
4.      Hadist yang diriwayatkan sesuai dengan persyaratan Bukhari dan Muslim.
5.      Hadist yang diriwayatkan menurut persyaratan Bukhari.
6.      Hadist yang diriwayatkan menurut persyaratan Muslim.
7.   Hadist Shahih menurut Imam-Imam Hadist lainnya yang tidak mengikuti syariat Bukhari dan Muslim, seperti Ibn Khuzaimah dan Ibn Hibban.[7]





  Ibn al-Shalah. ‘Ulum al-Hadits, hlm. 10.
  Ajjaj al-Khatib, Ushul al-Hadits, hlm. 305.
  Diantara para Ulama ada yang menambahkan ketentuan lain tentang sifat adil ini, yaitu seperti Tidak berbuat dosa besar, menjauhi dosa kecil, tidak berbuat bid’ah, tidak maksiat, baik akhlaqnya, dapat dipercaya beritanya, dan biasa berpijak pada kebenaran. Lihat pada M.Syuhudi Ismail, Kaedah Kesahihan Sanad Hadis (Jakarta: Bulan Bintang, 1988), hlm. 144
  Ajjaj al-Khatib, Ushul al-Hadits, hlm. 305; Al-Thahhan, Taisir, hlm. 33-34.
  Ibid., hlm. 36.
  Ibid., hlm. 42-43.

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