Belajar Jurumiyah (0) Mabadi Ilmu Nahwu
mabadi ilmu nahwu jurumiyah
Mabadi

ISLAMIDINA - Masuk kepembahasan ilmu nahwu yang ke nol atau awal persiapan belajar jurumiyah kita harus mulai membahas tentang mabadi ilmu nahwu atau mabadi jurumiyah yang mana ini merupakan rumusan kunci dasar dalam pembahasan ilmu nahwu khususnya dalam kitab jurumiyah saya akan menerangkan mungkin dengan gaya bahasa saya sendiri.

Apa itu mabadi? mabadi secara mudahnya merupakan rumusan / rincian bisa juga disebut sebagai biografi dari suatu fan ilmu yang akan kita kaji. Contoh sekarang kita akan mengkaji ilmu nahwu maka mabadi ilmu nahwu yang akan kita pelajari atau secara mudah biografi ilmu nahwu yang akan kita pelajari.

Bagi yang belum baca harus kalian baca : Konsep Dasar Kitab Jurumiyah

Mabadi itu berari persiapan dijelaskan dalam halaman pertama kitab ini dibuatkan sebuah nadzom oleh mushonif/pengarang seperti ini nadzomnya :

Nadzom Mabadi Ilmu Nahwu

Nadzom ini merupakan nadzom yang digunakan di Pondok Pesantren Salafiyah Terpadu Darussyifa Al-Fitroh. Kebetulan Ust. yang mengajari saya adalah Ust. Dedi Nur Farid Allahumagfirlahu Wayasir Umurahu Wahasil Maqosidahu. Beliau lah guru saya yang mengajari saya dasar dasar ilmu nahwu.


Beginilah Nadzom Versi Sunda Nya

اِنَّ مَبَادِى كُلِّ فَنٍّ عَشْرَةٌ               الْحَدُّ وَالْمَوْضُوْعُ ثُمَّ الثَّمْرَةُ
                       Persiapan Ngaos Fan Aya Sapuluh                Nyaho Patokan Mernahna Rejeng Buah
وَفَضْلٌهُ وَنِسْبَةٌ وَالْوَاضِعُ           وَالْاِسْمُ الْاِسْتِمْدَادُ حُكْمُ الشَّارِعِ
              Kaunggulan Jeng Nisbatna Nu Mernahken            Ngaran Panyokotan Hukum Ka Syariah

مَسَائِلُ وَالْبَعْضُ بِالْبَعْضِ اكْتَفَي          وَمَنْ دَرَي الْجَمِيْعَ حَازَ الشَّرَفَ
                  Masalahna Cukup Nyaho Sawarehna                  Munjalma Apal Kabeh Tangtu Mulyana

Mungkin sulit untuk dinadzomkan jika belum mendengar secara langsung. 

Mabadi Ilmu Nahwu

Marilah kita sama sama masuk kedalam pembahasan yang pertama yaitu mabadi ilmu nahwu. Gambaran dasar tentang ilmu nahwu dijelaskan dalam Nadzom tersebut diatas dijelaskan bahwa mabadi ilmu nahwu itu ada 10. Apa sajakah 10 itu? mari saya perinci
  1. Had / Patokan atau pengertian
  2. Maudu / Objek Pembahasan
  3. Samrah / Manfaat
  4. Fadlu / Keutamaan
  5. Nisbat / Hubungan
  6. Wad'i / Pengarang
  7. Ismu / Nama
  8. Istimdad / Sumber atau Dasar Bentukan
  9. Hukmu / Hukum
  10. Mas'ala / Masalah Pembahasan
Itulah gambaran dari mabadi yang sepuluh tersebut dan akan kita bahas secara terperinci satu persatu.

1. Had / Pengertian Definisi 

Pengertian atau ta'rif atau definisi atau patokan ilmu nahwu 

علم باصول يعرف بها احوال اواجر الكلمة اعرابا وبناء
Arab : Ilmun bi usulin yu'rofu biha ahwalul awakhiril kalimati iroban wa binaan
Terjemah : Ilmu dasar yang (dengan ilmu itu) dapat mengetahui tingkah akhir dari suatu kalimat baik dari segi irob ataupun mabni.

Bingung ya? Jadi secara mudahnya ilmu nahwu adalah ilmu yang mengatur harakat akhir suatu kalimat dalam bahasa arab seperti kalimat "المسجد" kalimat tersebut harkat akhirnya apa? Masjidu/Masjida/Masjidi/Masjid ?? Hayo yang mana? nah dengan ilmu nahwu kita bisa mengetahui harkat akhir karna kebanyakan dikitab salaf / kitab kuning itu tidak terdapat harkat.

2. Maudu / Objek Pembahasan

Objek pembahasan yang dikaji dalam ilmu nahwu yaitu kalimat atau kata dalam bahasa arab sehingga ilmu nahwu tidak bisa digunakan / dipakai dibahasa selain bahasa arab. 

3. Samrah / Manfaat 

Manfaat yang didapatkan ketika kita mengkaji ilmu nahwu adalah 
  • Terjaga lisan dari salah pengucapan dalam kalimat arab baik Al-Qur'an maupun Hadist.
  • Membantu mengetahui makna/tafsir dari Alquran/hadist yang sedang kita baca.
  • Mengetahui letak kesalahan lisan
Karna ilmu nahwu ini tidak diciptakan secara pasti untuk keuntungannya namun ketika kita menguasai ilmu nahwu kita akan merasakan berjuta juta keuntungan dan manfaat yang terkandung dalam ilmu nahwu karna ini merupakan ilmu yang sangat mulia.

4. Fadlun / Keutamaan

Keutamaan ilmu nahwu adalah membantu kita dalam mengkaji Alquran maupun hadist agar mengetahui makna tafsiran dari tiap kata yang ada dan juga menjaga lisan kita dari salahnya pengucapan dalam pembacaan di Alquran dan Hadist memiliki keutamaan diatas ilmu yang lainnya.

5. Nisbat / Hubungan

Hubungan antara ilmu nahwu dengan ilmu yang lain adalah Penjelas dan juga ilmu nahwu itu (Tabayun Kuliun) Ilmu nahwu itu berbeda dengan ilmu yang lain. Karna ilmu nahwu mempunyai wilayah kajian yang berbeda maka disebutlah (tabayun) penjelas bagi ilmu yang lain.

6. Wad'i / Pengarang

Pengarang atau pencetus atau pencipta ilmu nahwu adalah Abu Aswad Ad - Du'ali yang mana beliau diperintahkan oleh Sayyid Ali Karamallhu Wajhah untuk membuat ilmu nahwu karna pada saat itu tidak sedikit orang arab yang membaca Alquran tidak sesuai dengan kaidah kaidah yang telah dijelaskan.

7. Ismu / Nama

Nama ilmu ini adalah ilmu Nahwu. Ilmu yang akan kita kaji sesuai dengan definis atau ta'rif yang diejalaskan dibagian nomor 1 diatas.

8. Istimdad / Dasar Bentukan

Ilmu nahwu ini bersumber atau berdasarkan dari :
  1. Al Qur'an
  2. Hadist Rasulullah SAW
  3. Ucapan Ucapan Orang Arab

9. Hukum

Hukum mengkaji ilmu nahwu itu ada 2 bagian satu fardu kifayah disetiap daerah itu harus ada yang mewakili dalam pengkajian ilmu nahwu dan hukumny Fardu Ain bagi setiap orang yang akan mengkaji ilmu Tafsir Al Qur'an.

10. Permasalahan Yang Dibahas

Permasalah yang dibahas dalam kajian ilmu nahwu khususnya belajar jurumiyah ini seperti bab fail yang harakat akhirnya harus dirafakan dan sbg.

Itulah sepuluh mabadi ilmu nahwu yang harus kita hapal dan pahami agar tidak salah dalam melakukan pengkajian ilmu nahwu.

Selanjutnya kita akan memasuki kajian bab kalam.

Jadi stay terus di ISLAMIDINA

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